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Friday, 8 September 2017

Optimizing deoxidation and desuIphurization during vacuum induction melting of alloy 718 is now online and free to members of IOM3.

My seminal paper:

Optimizing deoxidation and desuIphurization during vacuum induction melting of alloy 718, J. Alexander,

The above referenced scientic publication is an indispensible reference of fundamental importance for the very highest quality (and not mentioned higher productivity) manufacturing by Vacuum Induction Melting (VIM)  of a large family of alloys,(high intergrity materials such as aero-engine quality Nickel based superalloys (and similar materials). My paper was first briefly reported at a Superalloy meeting in London UK (1982) then fully published in 1984-85, in the, then new, journal, Materials Science and Technology (IOM3, UK). At the time of this work the only acceptable method of manufacturing to the very high standards and specifications of materials used in the manufacture of aeronatic engines was by the use of so called virgin materials, as opposed to the use of recycled materials (eg. previously manufactured and/or used alloys of same or simalar grades.)

(NB a typical aeroengine such as those powering an Airbus or Boeing Aircaft to name two is require to withstand 50 000 hrs of flight).

Now in this work sucessful trials and procedures were developped by which the use of either virgin raw material melt charges or carefully selected recycled materials (superally scrap) in the melt charge process equally reach the same very high standards required for aeroengine application.

This work has now been made available, online, by the UK Institute of Minerals,Mining and Materials (IOM3) and their publisher (Taylor and Francis) UK. As mentionned this work is now freely available to members of IOM3 via their website

The work was carried out while I, the author, worked at Imphy SA, now APERAM, in France (Burgandy Region, Department 58, La Nièvre).

My role was absolutely indispensible in the acceptance of the project  by our steelworks  and our chemical analysis laboratory in response to  GE-SNECMA's extremely high aero-engine main shaft requirements obtaining adheshion of both Steelworks and Chemistry Lab (90 or so Chem Elements to be analysed in order to satisfy the imposed specification of the client GE-SNECMA consortium for the above work to begin. (I had previous engaged a college student to carry out an indepth inventory which allowed us to know all unwanted fragilising trace element ever encountered in over a historically long period within this long and rightly proud plant (company).

With his trace element inventory and subsequent analysis by use of a Venn Diagramme I was able to reduce the internal trace element spec to a few known and easy to analyse chem. elements in our inhouse Chem Lab. The indispensible adhesion of Meltshop and Chemistry Lab. was thus gained. Melt trials were programmed. A team composed of researchers and meltshop specialists was set up to follow the procedures in which improved, but difficult to handle, desoxidation and desulphurisation agents were to be introduced. During the first melt trial as the refining took place and timide ajustments were made following chemical analysis of specimens.  The appointed research colleague on first melt- incidentally qualified to PhD level!!! "threw in the towel" while, I, as the experienced steel-melt-shop quality process engineer, stayed overseeing the initial meltshop personel and continued throughout the night making sucessive adjustments to the chosen chemical agents. At 5am in the morning the Chem. Lab anounced that all oygen and sulphur had been removed. "YES...EUREKA"! While others doubted the feasability the adjustments required to suceed and special precautions were published,  In fact I finished these adjustments alone throughout the night. At about 5am in the morning, the laboratory was able to announce to me, virtually zero oxygene and sulphur in the melt.  This work also showed that recycled materials can prove equally acceptable as the standard so called "virgin raw material" until then the only acceptable raw materials choice to meet the Aeronautics Authoritities stringent Safety Specifications and Regulations. And of course various improved economics and sustainability of ever rarifying strategic materials. NB. Highly reliable "aeronautic quality scrap material" was resourced via Ireland Alloys in Scotland (with thanks).

Rapidly these procedures were adopted in a wide range of Inconel & Udimet type superalloys and Hastelloys. The powder metallurgical plant was a very early adept to this breakthrough.

The overall cleanness of our  (Imphy S.A.- now APERAM)special and superalloys was greatly enhanced.

I remain available to discuss and assist companies with such improvements if required. Most of this work has been adopted in regular production. Also these VIM procedures greatly helped the desulphurization ability of ESR-Electro Slag Remelting (Nothing like taking the sulphur our before ESR! ) Other productivity improvements were achieve.

James Alexander is a Free-Lance Consultant and Translator (Bilingual French-English) 
Specialialities-process metallurgy, technology transfer (Japan-Invar for Liquid Gas Transport & India-Ministry of Defense India MIDHANI project, Hyderabad,India.

To cite this article: J. Alexander (1985) Optimizing deoxidation and desulphurization during vacuum induction melting of alloy 718, Materials Science and Technology, 1:2, 167-170, DOI: 10.1179/mst.1985.1.2.167 To link to this article:

Other Citations:

Sulphur Control in Nickel-Based Superalloy Production Dipl.-Ing. J. Morscheiser1 , Dipl.-Ing. L. Thönnessen2 , Prof. Dr.-Ing. B. Friedrich1 1 IME Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling, RWTH Aachen University Intzestraße 3 52056 Aachen NB The date of my work is incorrectly referrences as 1995 (ie ten years late!!!)

((ALEXANDER, J.: Optimizing deoxidation and desulphurization during vacuum induction melting of alloy 718, in Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 1, 1995,(should be 1985) p. 167-170

and correctly cited as one would expect by Prof A.Mitchell  renowened also as a first class consultant

THE MAGNESIUM PROBLEM IN SUPERALLOYS A. Mitchell, M. Hilbom, E. Samuelsson and A. Kanagawa Dept. of Metals and Materials Engineering The University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V6T lW5

4. J. Alexander: Material Science and Technology, Feb. 1985, V.l, pp. 167- 170.  

Monday, 12 June 2017

Materials Science and Engineering Initiative focuses on sustainability

Materials Science and Engineering Initiative focuses on sustainability: "Materials Science and Engineering Initiative focses on sustainability"

"UC Santa Cruz researchers are developing new materials for a wide range of devices and products, from solar cells to surfboards

"It sounds like something out of science fiction, but a magnetic skyrmion is a real thing, and skyrmion-based devices might someday dominate data storage and processing, combining high speed, low energy consumption, and small size.
UC Santa Cruz physicist David Lederman studies the materials needed to create and control skrymions, which are very stable, very small magnetic structures. He leads a team of scientists and engineers at three UC campuses and a national laboratory who are working to understand the fundamental physics of these structures while assessing the feasibility of using them in data storage and processing devices."
"Like the field of materials science in general, the project straddles the divide between basic and applied research. "There's a lot of fundamental science involved, but at the end of the day, you want to come up with something useful," Lederman said.
Materials science is also inherently interdisciplinary, he said, involving chemistry, physics, engineering, and even biology. Lederman directs the Materials Science and Engineering Initiative at UC Santa Cruz, which includes faculty in several departments in the Division of Physical and Biological Sciences and the Baskin School of Engineering."
'via Blog this'

Monday, 16 January 2017

Raising the standards_How nickel-containing stainless steel make food safer

How nickel-containing stainless steel make food safer

The FDA considered this Listeriosis outbreak to be “yet another reason to fully implement the Food Safety Modernization Act” (FSMA) which was signed into law on January 4, 2011. The Act aims to ensure the US food supply is safe by shifting the focus of federal regulators from responding to contamination to preventing it, and provides the FDA with the authority to require preventive controls across the food supply chain; perform inspections and ensure compliance; recall contaminated food and ensure imported foods meet US standards.

Are these standards met in the EU.? 
The arguements are well illustrated in the Ni-Institute News Letter under the following 3 paragraphe headed as follows:

The full letter may be consulted at the link beleow. 

Raising the standards:

"A fifth of all nickel production is destined for food contact materials, primarily stainless steel, which because of its outstanding properties meets the stringent requirements of the industry. To ensure that food is completely safe, standards and guidelines for equipment must be adhered to. Yet there are many different standards, by different organizations, in different countries, with different approaches, even if they have the same ultimate goal. Some standards are mandatory, others are voluntary, and they are regularly updated to address new concerns."

-Need for standards Explained.

-A stainless steel for every application.

-Not just clean and shiny.

'via Blog this'

Thursday, 1 December 2016

Loads of free peer reviewed material Sage Publications, all disciplines,NB. Management & Materials Related: Quick Browse Sage's extensive library,

LINK to Sage Publications: 

Sages offer is so exhaustive that no more needs to be said, best to browse individually or in groups.

I opened my alert to a couple of management journals. 

After downloading a few peer reviewed papers I then felt drawn to browse the extensive catelogue of online materials, well organized alphabetically and selected a few more Journals in some of my technical interests...

Typically Materials Science and Engineering and Similar Jornals Engineering Environment etc

Cheers to SAGE and I hope my readers will make good use of these materials...."good and peaceful use in a true "wedge-a-war" sense so much required in our time.


Saturday, 12 November 2016

Celox Oxygen Activity probe

Readers of my recent post:

"Optimizing deoxidation and desuIphurization during vacuum induction melting of alloy 718"

full paper free to members of IOM3,UK is now online and freely available to members of IOM3.

Readers new to Superalloys and steel cleanness via Sulphur & Oxygen removal may also wish to read about Oxygen Activity Mesurement probes. The one I am particularily familiar with is the Celox Oxygen Activity probe. In many ways our/my introduction and systematic use of the Celox probe in the production process, undoubtably added credibility to the companies product,

The Celox Oxygen Activity Measurement Probe

Comments or requests for information on Oxygen Activity Measurement  and related are most welcome.

Cheers & Enjoy

High Purity Cr sources for Superalloys

Energy for th Future:Phil.Trans.A-Vol. 365, N° 1853 / April 15, 2007, curtesy The Royal Soc. London

Engineered foams and porous materials: Phil Trans A. Vol 364, N° 1838 / 06 curtesy_The R Soc. Lond