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Saturday, 16 August 2014

Copper foam turns CO2 into useful chemicals -ref Materials Today





A catalyst made from a foamy form of copper has vastly different electrochemical properties from catalysts made with smooth copper in reactions involving carbon dioxide, a new study shows. The research, by scientists in Brown University’s Center for the Capture and Conversion of CO2, suggests that copper foams could provide a new way of converting excess CO2 into useful industrial chemicals. For example a photo of Cu foam from ERG Materials and Aerospace is given as follows:






Example of Copper Properties 


“Copper has been studied for a long time as an electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction, and it’s the only metal shown to be able to reduce CO2 to useful hydrocarbons,” said Tayhas Palmore, professor of engineering and senior author of the new research. “There was some indication that if you roughen the surface of planar copper, it would create more active sites for reactions with CO2.”




'As levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere continue to rise, researchers are looking for ways to make use of it. One approach is to capture CO2 emitted from power plants and other facilities and use it as a carbon source to make industrial chemicals, most of which are currently made from fossil fuels. The problem is that CO2 is extremely stable, and reducing it to a reactive and useful form isn’t easy.


Now,copper foam, which has been developed only in the last few years, provided the surface roughness (and increased surface area?-reaction:chemical rate controlled or mass transfer controlled?) for which Palmore and her colleagues were looking. The foams are made by depositing copper on a surface in the presence of hydrogen and a strong electric current. Hydrogen bubbles cause the copper to be deposited in an arrangement of sponge-like pores and channels of varying sizes.'


'After depositing copper foams on an electrode, the researchers set up experiments to see what kinds of products would be produced in an electrochemical reaction with CO2 in water.'




The experiments showed that the copper foam converted CO2 into formic acid — a compound often used as a feedstock for microbes that produce biofuels — at a much greater efficiency than planar copper. The reaction also produced small amounts of propylene, a useful hydrocarbon that’s never been reported before in reactions involving copper.
“The product distribution was unique and very different from what had been reported with planar electrodes, which was a surprise,” Palmore said. “We’ve identified another parameter to consider in the electroreduction of CO2. It’s not just the kind of metal that’s responsible for the direction this chemistry goes, but also the architecture of the catalyst.”
'Now that it’s clear that architecture matters,  It’s likely, Palmore says, that pores of different depths or diameters will produce different compounds from a CO2 feedstock. Ultimately, it might be possible to tune the copper foam toward a specific desired compound.'


Copper foam turns CO2 into useful chemicals - Materials Today

Thursday, 7 August 2014

Entropy | Free Full-Text | Physical Properties of High Entropy Alloys


Introduction 

High entropy alloys (HEAs) are a novel class of metallic material with a distinct design strategy [1,2]. Different from conventional alloys that are typically designed based on one or two principal
elements, HEAs are composed of more than five principal elements. It has been reported that
HEAs possess many attractive properties, such as high hardness [3–7], outstanding wear resistance [8,9], good fatigue resistance characteristics [10], excellent high-temperature strength [11,12], good
thermal stability [13] and, in general, good oxidation [8] and corrosion resistance [14,15]. These
properties suggest great potential in a wide variety of applications. Thus, HEAs have received
significant attention in recent years. Up till now, more than 300 HEAs have been developed,
forming a new frontier of metallic materials. Most studies on HEAs are focused on the
relationships between phase, microstructure, and mechanical properties. Although less attention
was paid to the physical properties of HEAs, they are actually also quite encouraging. This paper
briefly reviews current understanding of the physical properties of HEAs, with emphasis on the
magnetic, electrical, and thermal properties

Examples of magnetic properties:


CLICK to VIEW FULL TABLES

Electrical & Thermal Conductivity


Full paper tables,graphs and references at the link below :

Entropy | Free Full-Text | Physical Properties of High Entropy Alloys

IT IS rocket science - air-breathing rocket engine for plane and space trave

According to Prof.Ken Naitoh of Waseda University   six major challenges lie in the range of scales from nano to tera: 
(I) modern fluid dynamics of turbulence; 
(II) non-equilibrium macroscopic quantum mechanics;
(III) onto-biology
(IV) bacteria application for environmental and medical problems; 
(V) hypersonic and automotive engines; and (VI) economic models.
(VI) economic models.
Number 5 in theis list is: Hypersonic and automotive engines. 

Six major challenges lie in the range of scales from nano to tera: (I) modern fluid dynamics of turbulence; (II) non-equilibrium macroscopic quantum mechanics; (III) onto-biology; (IV) bacteria application for environmental and medical problems; (V) hypersonic and automotive engines; and (VI) economic models.
Ultimate goals are the exploration of life in the cosmos using spacecraft with our proposed new aerospace engine and finding potential answers to the question "What is life?”

REF:
It is rocket science - air-breathing rocket engine for plane and space travel | IOM3: The Global Network for Materials, Minerals & Mining Professionals

Full Article on The 6 Major Challenges

Sabre rocket reaction engine l




Monday, 21 July 2014

Uncertainty Gives Scientists New Confidence In Search For Novel Materials - Science News - redOrbit

Uncertainty Gives Scientists New Confidence In Search For Novel Materials - Science News - redOrbit



SLAC, Stanford advance will benefit thousands of computational studies in wide range of fields
Scientists at Stanford University and the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have found a way to estimate uncertainties in computer calculations that are widely used to speed the search for new materials for industry, electronics, energy, drug design and a host of other applications. The technique, reported in the July 11 issue of Science, should quickly be adopted in studies that produce some 30,000 scientific papers per year.
“Over the past 10 years our ability to calculate the properties of materials and chemicals, such as reactivity and mechanical strength, has increased enormously. It’s totally exploded,” said Jens Nørskov, a professor at SLAC and Stanford and director of the SUNCAT Center for Interface Science and Catalysis, who led the research.
“As more and more researchers use computer simulations to predict which materials have the interesting properties we’re looking for – part of a process called ‘materials by design’ — knowing the probability for error in these calculations is essential,” he said. “It tells us exactly how much confidence we can put in our results.”
Nørskov and his colleagues have been at the forefront of developing this approach, using it to find better and cheaper catalysts to speed ammonia synthesis and generate hydrogen gas for fuel, among other things. But the technique they describe in the paper can be broadly applied to all kinds of scientific studies.
Speeding the Material Design Cycle
The set of calculations involved in this study is known as DFT, for Density Functional Theory. It predicts bond energies between atoms based on the principles of quantum mechanics. DFT calculations allow scientists to predict hundreds of chemical and materials properties, from the electronic structures of compounds to density, hardness, optical properties and reactivity.
Because researchers use approximations to simplify the calculations – otherwise they’d take too much computer time – each of these calculated material properties could be off by a fairly wide margin.
To estimate the size of those errors, the team applied a statistical method: They calculated each property thousands of times, each time tweaking one of the variables to produce slightly different results. That variation in results represents the possible range of error.
“Even with the estimated uncertainties included, when we compared the calculated properties of different materials we were able to see clear trends,” said Andrew J. Medford, a graduate student with SUNCAT and first author of the study. “We could predict, for instance, that ruthenium would be a better catalyst for synthesizing ammonia than cobalt or nickel, and say what the likelihood is of our prediction being right.”
An Essential New Tool for Thousands of Studies
DFT calculations are used in the materials genome initiative to search through millions of solids and compounds, and also widely used in drug design, said Kieron Burke, a professor of chemistry and physics at the University of California-Irvine who was not involved in the study.
“There were roughly 30,000 papers published last year using DFT,” he said. “I believe the technique they’ve developed will become absolutely necessary for these kinds of calculations in all fields in a very short period of time.”
Thomas Bligaard, a senior staff scientist in charge of theoretical method development at SUNCAT, said the team has a lot of work ahead in implementing these ideas, especially in calculations attempting to make predictions of new phenomena or new functional materials.


Source: DOE/SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory



Read more at http://www.redorbit.com/news/science/1113189480/uncertainty-gives-scientists-new-confidence-in-search-for-novel-materials/#IHiRGVcfslVz6bQh.99

Friday, 13 June 2014

Materials at High Temperatures_ publised by Maney Publications, TOP Publications, Most read,cited, Editors Selection and more, FREE for 1 month


A MUST FOR PRACTISING  METALLURGISTS WORKING IN THE FIELDS OF HIGH TEMPERTURE MATERIALS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS.

           

Materials at High Temperatures publishes articles relating to high temperature applications in the power generation, aerospace, chemical engineering, processing, and furnace industries.

The effects of high temperatures and extreme environments on the corrosion and oxidation, fatigue, creep, strength and wear behaviour of materials are covered. 


SEE ALSO THE WIDE SELECTION OF SIMILAR WORK & RELATED PAPERS AVAILABLE TO MEMBERS OF IOM3 (web Link)


                 

Thursday, 9 January 2014

Energy materials to combat climate change'

Update on Energy Materials from The Royal Academy of Science (RSA)

The menu is as follows and all articles have been made available to all- Climate Change Oblige!?

So dig in and apply my friends.

Preface

Articles

High Purity Cr sources for Superalloys

Energy for th Future:Phil.Trans.A-Vol. 365, N° 1853 / April 15, 2007, curtesy The Royal Soc. London

Engineered foams and porous materials: Phil Trans A. Vol 364, N° 1838 / 06 curtesy_The R Soc. Lond