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Thursday, 26 December 2013

Superalloys - High temperature materials | IOM3: The Global Network for Materials, Minerals & Mining Professionals

Superalloys - High temperature materials | IOM3: The Global Network for Materials, Minerals & Mining Professionals

The term superalloy is generally applied to those alloys that have useful levels of mechanical properties above 600-700oC, and which do not lose strength significantly when exposed to high temperatures for substantial times.
Superalloys are also required to have good "creep resistance" to limit the extent to which they will not suffer spontaneous deformation under sustained load at elevated temperature. Superalloys will usually have good oxidation resistance and respectable wear resistance at their service temperture. However they can suffer very badly form other forms of high temperature corrosion and therefore require surface engineering treatments to protect them from the operating environment.
Superalloys are fundamental to the construction of all high temperature engineering including gas turbines (aka jet engines) as well as process plants and heat treatment furnace equipment, jigs and furniture. They are therefore fundamental to our society and economy. They have been, and remain, the subject of substantial research and development activity as operating conditions become more and more demanding.
There are a number of families of superalloys, based respectively on iron, nickel or cobalt as the principal alloying element. The nickel based alloys are probably the most widely used today. Look for the names Nimonic, Inconel, Incoloy, Astroloy, Rene and Waspaloy perhaps followed by a number e.g. nimonic 90 or Inconel 718 (some times written IN718). These are the Trade Names of nickel based superalloys from different manufacturers. Some of these compositions have now been absorbed into National Standards in some countries.

High Temperature Materials Committee

Thursday, 7 November 2013

A new understanding of metallic glass - MIT News Office

A new understanding of metallic glass

I have relayed this MIT new article due to the growing importance of metallic glasses which I first learned of due to the interest and investment in R&D in my old outfit the famous"Imphy SA, Imphy, France." The site situated on the banks of the Loire river, 15kms from Nevers was originally chosen by the famous Colbert and is a proud manufacturer of one of the 4 base blocks supporting La Tour Eiffel. Now unfortuneatly, this once proud company has become a hotch-potch consortium (Belgian,French,Indian)with the outlandish name of Aperam, composed of  Eramet,Aubert &Duval & Arcelor-Mittal.

Back to the scientific nitty-gritty:

Simulations reveal that the formation of some glassy materials is like the setting of a bowl of gelatin.

In a 50/50 mix of copper and niobium, regions that are richer in copper separate from regions that are richer in niobium. The interface between these two kinds of regions forms an irregular sponge-like surface, shown in this visualization in green. While most of the material is disordered (making it a glass), small collections of atoms at the boundary zone (shown in gray) form a stiff interconnected network, giving the material greater strength. 

Gelatin sets by forming a solid matrix full of random, liquid-filled pores — much like a saturated sponge. It turns out that a similar process also happens in some metallic glasses, substances whose molecular behavior has now been clarified by new MIT research detailing the “setting” of these metal alloys.

The research is published this week in the journalPhysical Review Letters, in a paper 
co-authored by assistant professor of materials science and engineering Michael Demkowicz and graduate student Richard Baumer. It addresses one of the “grand challenges” in physics, Demkowicz says: understanding what happens during what is known as the “glass transition” in materials, when their molecular structure settles into a disordered, yet solid, state.

“It was a serendipitous discovery,” Demkowicz says, after Baumer “started out working on something completely different, studying the radiation response of amorphous metallic alloys.” But in the course of that research, while conducting simulations of the behavior of these alloys, Baumer found something unexpected: a series of brief events in which tiny pockets of the alloyed metals melted and then solidified again. 

Certain metallic alloys are known to form glasses — materials in which the atoms are distributed in a disordered way (unlike crystalline metals, which form perfectly regular arrays). While the alloy Baumer was studying was not of this type, its behavior provided hints that it might be capable of forming glasses.

The alloy, a 50/50 blend of copper and niobium, is “unlike other glass-formers,” Demkowicz says: Normally its two constituents are like oil and water, and don’t mix. (Typically, alloys that form glasses are composites of materials with a strong affinity for one another.)

But as the copper-niobium blend is quenched — that is, cooled quickly to below its melting point — a brief phase-separation occurs, then suddenly stops. But instead of separating out into adjacent, pure crystals of the two components, the alloy’s structure remains disordered. “There are regions enriched in copper, and regions enriched in niobium, and interfaces between them,” Demkowicz says. The regions themselves are too small to allow for the formation of a crystalline structure: “You can’t make a perfect repeating structure out of any of them.”

The boundary between the copper-rich and niobium-rich zones turns out to be crucial. This zone is similar to the spongelike structure that gives gelatin its stiffness, even though gelatin is mostly liquid. In this case, the pockets between the boundary regions are initially also liquid, but gain strength from the framework around them.

This “gelation” process, Demkowicz says, “may be more common than people think.” As a result, this work could lead to reevaluation of a variety of metal alloys not previously considered good candidates for glass formation.

While the work is so far theoretical, Demkowicz says that this better understanding of the formation process may improve the mechanical properties of glasses — such as by creating new glass materials whose brittleness is minimized. “This may be a new way of controlling the distribution of components” within glass, he says.

Evan Ma, a professor of materials science and engineering at Johns Hopkins University who was not involved in this research, says, “Their findings in this metallic system are remarkably similar to gelation processes in polymeric and colloidal gels, and thus point to significant common features that bridge different kinds of amorphous materials and glasses.” Yunfeng Shi, an assistant professor of materials science and engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, adds that the work could lead to “understanding of the commonality in glass transition among all glass-formers.”

The work was supported by the National Science Foundation.

Materials physics for materials design_The attractions of computor simulation ref. MIT's Michael Demkowicz Grp.

The attractions of computor simulation although mostly for resolution of complex multi-variable and multi-dimentional problems they are also an excellent tool for visulisation and highly attractive communication.

Here are some examples taken from MIT's  Demkowicz Group 


Computational materials design using Reduced Order Mesoscale Models (ROMMs)


2. Radiation-resistant amorphous materials.
3. Materials design through interface engineering.
4. Bayesian inference applied to grain boundaries.
5. Prediction and prevention of wear.

 Mitigating hydrogen- and helium- induced damage

Although they may "seem benign", hydrogen (H) and helium (He) can both cause severe embrittlement in structural materials. H embrittlement is especially problematic in acidic environments, such as those encountered in deep oil wells, while He embrittlement may occur in nuclear reactors. By controlling how H and He atoms diffuse, cluster, and interact with crystal defects, we are designing new embrittlement-resistant materials for energy applications
NB. Hydrogen embrittlement is a well known phenomena and has long been documented. He damage came to the fore due to the extensive use of Ar and/or  He in powder metallurgy where one or other of these inert gases are used to atomise liquid metal streams from typically VIM-Vacuum Induction Furnaces.

Crystalline materials are tough, but susceptible to radiation damage. To create materials with significantly improved safety, performance, and reliability for advanced nuclear reactors, we are investigating the radiation response of amorphous (non-crystalline) materials. Combining both crystalline and amorphous solids into composites may lead to materials that capitalize on the strengths of both while compensating for their weaknesses.

Although they are sometimes viewed as no more than dividing surfaces between neighboring constituents, solid-state interfaces (most usually called grain boundaries) in fact have distinct physical properties of their own. We are using the properties of interfaces to design new materials with radically enhanced performance under extreme irradiation and mechanical loading.

Many materials are so complex, that we can only gain partial understanding of their structures and properties using individual experimental or modeling methods. However, we can gain a more complete picture by combining results from many kinds of different techniques. Bayesian inference provides a rigorous mathematical framework for intelligently combining vastly different types of data such that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. We are applying this technique to infer the properties of grain boundaries as a function of their crystallographic character.

Wear is a life-limiting materials degradation mechanism in many applications. For example, wear by grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF) is the most common cause of fuel leaks in current nuclear reactors. We are developing microscale simulations for modeling wear at the level of single asperities and debris particles. These simulations will lead to better predictions of wear and to the design of materials with improved wear resistance.
1. Projects.

Although they are sometimes viewed as no more than dividing surfaces between neighboring constituents, solid-state interfaces in fact have distinct physical properties of their own. We are using the properties of interfaces to design new materials with radically enhanced performance under extreme irradiation and mechanical loading.

Wednesday, 18 September 2013

Energy applications of ionic liquids - Energy & Environmental Science (RSC Publishing)

Energy applications of ionic liquids by
Douglas R. MacFarlane,*a   Naoki Tachikawa,a   Maria Forsyth,b  Jennifer M. Pringle,b   Patrick C. Howlett,b   Gloria D. Elliott,c  James H. Davis,d   Masayoshi Watanabe,e   Patrice Simonf and  C. Austen Angellg  

Affiliations & contacts cf. Full Reference 
Energy applications of ionic liquids - Energy & Environmental Science (RSC Pub) below.


Graphical abstract: Energy applications of ionic liquids

Ionic liquids offer a unique suite of properties that make them important candidates for a number of energy related applications. Cation–anion combinations that exhibit low volatility coupled with high electrochemical and thermal stability, as well as ionic conductivity, create the possibility of designing ideal electrolytes for batteries, super-capacitors, actuators, dye sensitised solar cells and thermo-electrochemical cells. In the field of water splitting to produce hydrogen they have been used to synthesize some of the best performing water oxidation catalysts and some members of the protic ionic liquid family co-catalyse an unusual, very high energy efficiency water oxidation process. As fuel cell electrolytes, the high proton conductivity of some of the protic ionic liquid family offers the potential of fuel cells operating in the optimum temperature region above 100 °C. Beyond electrochemical applications, the low vapour pressure of these liquids, along with their ability to offer tuneable functionality, also makes them ideal as CO2 absorbents for post-combustion CO2 capture. Similarly, the tuneable phase properties of the many members of this large family of salts are also allowing the creation of phase-change thermal energy storage materials having melting points tuned to the application. This perspective article provides an overview of these developing energy related applications of ionic liquids and offers some thoughts on the emerging challenges and opportunities.


Energy applications of ionic liquids - Energy & Environmental Science (RSC Pub

Tuesday, 20 August 2013

Ultrastable Metallic Glass, Yu 2013, published in Advanced Materials Wiley Online Library_AND free publication on THIS SUBJECT

Let me bring readers attention to the following publication on ,
Cover image for Vol. 25 Issue 32Ultrastable Metallic Glass by Yu et al. 2013 published in Advanced Materials by Wiley via Wiley Online Library


A new metallic glass, which was created by vapour deposition at an appropriately high substrate temperature, shows exceptional thermal stability, and enhanced glass transition temperature and elastic modulus. 

Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Comparing this new material with other organic glasses prepared by similar routes and known as ultrastable glasses demonstrates the formation of ultrastable glassy materials correlates to the important concept of fragility.

To read the full publication requires a personal or library subscription to Wiley's publication Advanced Materials.

MORE on metallic glasses free via ARXIV.0RG and Original Source Universities

Ultrastrong and Ultrastable Metallic Glass Daisman et al. 2013-06-06  (pdf)

The glass transition diagram in model metallic glasses Goa X.Q. 2013-05 (pdf)

The Round Thing list of papers

Ultrastrong Optical Binding of Metallic Nanoparticles 2012 in NanoLetters Univ Texas-Austin .pdf

Thursday, 1 August 2013

Unappreciated Materials by Prof. Mike Ashby. Mike's Approach to Materials Engineering and their role in the Environment are Recalled

Mike has again taken a remarkable and provocative approach in his blog series entitled "Unappreciated materials"
1.  Corrugated iron
2.  Asphalt Concrete.

About Prof. Mike Ashby

Mike Ashby is Emeritus Professor in the Department of Engineering at the University of Cambridge. He is a world-renowned authority on engineering materials and the author/co-author of best-selling textbooks, including the recently published Materials and the Environment. Other current texts include Engineering Materials I & II, Materials Selection in Mechanical Design, Materials in Design, and Materials: Engineering, Science, Processing, and Design. He has authored over 200 papers on mechanisms of plasticity and fracture, powder compaction, mechanisms of wear, methodologies for materials selection, and the modeling of material shaping processes, among other topics. He is recipient of numerous awards and honors including Fellow of the Royal Society and Member of the American Academy of Engineering. He has been a professor at Harvard University and held academic positions in Germany and France. He is also co-founder of Granta Design and guides development of Granta’s CES EduPack.




Monday, 15 July 2013

Defect Analysis of 316LSS during the PIM Process by Ali Samer due to

Gen-up on Powder Metallurgy, specifically Powder Injection Moulding thanks to a paper made available by an international team from Malaysia & USA via the site ""

Defect Analysis of 316LSS during the PIM Process | Ali Samer -

I am sure readers, especially fellow metallurgists, will enjoy further up-dating via papers such as this, a nice addition to our Institute of Materials Minerals & Mining (IOM3) collection of 22 journals published for IOM3 by Maney Publication, extensively covering all aspects of materials science, technology and engineering including of course The Journal Powder Metallurgy all of which are freely available on line for members of The Institution.

So please join me in reading Metallurgy and the wide spectrum of the Materials Sciences. Best wishes in putting this into good practise.


Monday, 1 July 2013

When talking about materials innovation the key codes are A380 - A350: Light weight materials,CFRP's, Al, Ti..Light weight concepts, eco-efficiency,green-design


"The A350 XWB is an all-new design offering a step-change 
in lower seat mile costs requested by the market for its 
next-generation of twin-aisle, long-range jetliners"
according to Airbus Industries' Le Bourget website, ref. below.
Several photos due to Airbus Industries are reproduced below but their is a very large selection
to be found in the reference 1. below

Over 70 per cent of the A350 XWB’s weight-efficient airframe is made from advanced materials, combining 53 per cent of composite structures with titanium and advanced aluminium alloys, the aircraft’s innovative all-new Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) fuselage also results in lower fuel consumption

A350 Graphic

KEY DESIGN FEATURES driving this improvement in economic efficiency are:
- the extensive use of lightweight composite materials for lower weight 
and maintenance costs; 
-the implementation of simple, efficient and 
proven systems, including integrated modular avionics; 
-the application of state-of-the-art aerodynamics; and the use of latest-generation engines with the lowest fuel consumption and reduced emissions.

Composites, titanium and advanced aluminium-alloys are applied extensively throughout the A350 XWB’s fuselage, with their use tailored to the best characteristics of these materials. (1) The 53 per cent of composites utilised in the fuselage and wing reduces the need for fatigue-related inspections required on more traditional aluminium jetliners. (2) The composites and titanium also diminish the requirement for corrosion-related maintenance checks on the A350 XWB.
These two factors reduce the new aircraft’s overall fatigue and corrosion maintenance tasks by 60 per cent. 
Construction of the A350 XWB’s fuselage sections is made by assembling four-skin panel sections – two lateral side panels, one at the crown, and another for the belly – onto carbon fibre frames. In contrast to other composite aircraft, this construction technique allows for a tailoring of composite layup thickness to each panel, based on calculations of local fuselage stresses and loads.

The A350 XWB’s onboard systems are designed for maximum reliability, operability and simplicity. They are optimised for two primary criteria: (1) Robustness for ensured reliability and operability; (2) Simplicity for reduced maintenance time and cost.

                                 INFLUENCE OF THE AIRBUS FLAGSHIP -THE A380 
Many of these systems are derived from Airbus’ A380, providing the advantages of operational experience with this 21st century flagship aircraft and ensuring a high level of maturity at the A350’s XWB entry into service. 
(1) Solid-state power control technology on the A350 XWB eliminates the need for individual circuit breakers in the cockpit, cabin and electronics bay – providing a modern method of power control management throughout the aircraft.
(2) The application of variable frequency generators, which were first introduced with the A380, provides more power with less weight and lower maintenance costs, along with increased reliability and time-between-removals.
(3) Another A380-proven concept is the use of two hydraulic circuits (instead of three on other jetliners), with redundancy provided by a dual-channel electro-hydraulic backup system. In addition, A350 XWB’s hydraulics will be operated at the higher pressure level of 5,000 psi., which also is used on the A380. This increased operating pressure reduces the size of pipes, actuators and other system components while also facilitating the overall access – leading to improved reliability and maintainability, as well as reducing weight and increasing cost savings.
Highly efficient wing

The A350 XWB will be a faster, more efficient and quieter aircraft as the result of its advanced wing design – which combines aerodynamic enhancements already validated on the A380 with further improvements developed by Airbus engineers.
(1) Built primarily from carbon composite materials, the wing is optimised through extensive use of computational fluid dynamics and wind tunnel testing for a fast cruise speed of Mach 0.85. This reduces trip times, improves overall efficiency, and extends the aircraft’s range. 

(2) Both scaling & tailoring are permitted: a) Scaling. All three A350 XWB family members share the same wing planform – with a 64.7-metre wingspan, a total area of 442 sq. metres, and high swept leading edge. b)Tailored: In addition the internal wing structure will be scaled to meet the specific requirements of each aircraft variant. 
(3) Innovative concepts applied to the A350 XWB wing’s high-lift devices will reduce noise and drag while also improving the aircraft’s low-speed performance.  NB. One of these innovations is the stream-wise deployment of trailing-edge flaps. On a traditional swept-wing jetliner, the outboard flaps extend at an angle to the airflow. For the A350 XWB, flap deployment is along the direction of flight – resulting in better lift efficiency and improved low-speed performance, while reducing aerodynamic-generated noise. 

(4) Other A350 XWB wing enhancements include;
-4a. the adoption of a drop-hinge mechanism to improve the flap’s deployment kinetics, along with
-4b. the introduction of a downwards movement for the upper wing spoilers to fill the gaps that occur when flaps are extended.
-4c. In addition, the A350 XWB’s flight computer will perform in-flight trimming of the inboard and outboard flaps, creating a variable camber wing that adapts to different flight conditions.

REFERENCE 1. A350 XWB FAMILY:- Technology and Innovation

The A350 XWB has been designed to be eco-efficient from gate to gate ie. lower noise and fewer emissions at every single stage of the journey:

-1. It brings together the very latest in aerodynamics, design and advanced technologies in the A350 XWB to provide a 25 per cent step-change in fuel efficiency compared to its current long-range competitor.

-2. Contributing to this performance are the Rolls-Royce Trent XWB engines that power the A350 XWB Family. 

As over 70 per cent of the A350 XWB’s weight-efficient airframe is made from advanced materials, combining 53 per cent of composite structures with titanium and advanced aluminium alloys, the aircraft’s innovative all-new Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) fuselage also results in lower fuel consumption.

Simply put, every tonne of fuel saved means more than 3 tonnes of CO2 avoided, and the A350 XWB’s eco-efficient operation ensured margins for both current and future international environmental protection regulations.

A350XWB Eco-efficient

Less chemicals

The A350 XWB design favours environmentally-friendly materials in the manufacture of the aircraft.
Such as: 
1. Replacing the standard chrome-plating process with a more environmentally-friendly thermal spray alternative. This dry process produces a dense metal coating, which gives the same properties as chrome plating – including wear resistance, corrosion resistance, low oxide content, low stress, low porosity, and high bonding strength to the base metal.

2. The painting of A350 XWB's in airline colours uses an environmentally-friendly, chromate-free primer paint. Also following best practices from the auto industry, Airbus will use a new base coat/clear coat system that requires less paint and less solvent. This eco-efficient painting process also means that less detergent will be needed when washing the aircraft. Inside, the jetliner, Airbus will use, wherever possible, water-based paint – one of the most environmentally-friendly types of paint available.

A350 XWB


Eco-efficiency and recycling


Solar-cells on assembly-line roof

Eco-efficiency, recycling and end-of-life approaches

Eco-efficient, recycling-carbon-composites

Eco-efficient alternative-energy


The first striking feature is the sheer scale of the machine - the diameter of the set of fan blades at the front of the engine is 118 inches (299cm), the largest ever made by the British company and roomy enough to accommodate the fuselage of a Concorde.
The blades themselves, made of titanium, are hollow and strengthened inside by a microscopically small grid construction. GE has opted for fan blades made of composite materials.
The size of the fan enables the engine to suck in enough air to fill a squash court every second, and then squeeze it to the size of a fridge-freezer - what's known as a "compression ratio" of 50 to 1, the highest pressure Rolls-Royce has yet attained.
The larger the flow of air into the engine, and the greater the potential compression, the better the efficiency of the whole process.
When the mix of fuel and air is ignited, the resulting gas reaches an extraordinary temperature of 2,200C - a higher level than has been achieved before - which is meant to maximise the output of each drop of fuel.
The searing heat of 2,200C is in fact 700C hotter than the melting point of the components in the combustion chamber - including the turbine blades that are driven by this fast-expanding gas.
So each blade is drilled with a network of 300 tiny holes about the size of a human hair. This allows cooling air to flow in a thin film over the turbines' surface and act as a form of insulation.
To withstand this exceptional heat - and the massive pressures involved - the 68 turbine blades are made of a nickel-based alloy and are grown in a single crystal to avoid the risk of any internal fissures becoming sources of weakness.
The result is that each blade, driven by the expanding gases, generates as much power as a Formula One car, spinning an internal shaft that drives the massive fan blades at the engine's front.
On average, aircraft engines have become about 1% more fuel-efficient every year for the past two decades.
The claims by Rolls Royce will inevitably be followed by similar assertions by GE when its next engines are unveiled.
Airlines facing rising fuel prices are desperate to reduce costs, and the aviation industry as a whole is also under pressure to minimize its carbon emissions.
But as the latest generations of engines become more efficient, any reductions in greenhouse gases are outweighed by the global growth in air traffic, especially in Asia.
Dr Peter Hollingsworth, lecturer in aerospace engineering at Manchester University, said that basic physics meant that there were likely to be limits to how much more efficiency could be extracted from existing designs.
"It's a real challenge. With aviation growing at the rate it's growing, there's not a whole lot you can do. You can do the 1-2% average so over a number of years you get 20% but even that's a real challenge.
"Now that engines are a lot more efficient, a 20% improvement isn't worth as much as it was, so you're always working with diminishing returns and, at the same time, aviation is growing."
The aviation industry has set itself a target of a 50% reduction in carbon emissions by 2050 compared with 2005 levels - and there's a recognition that that will only be achievable with a revolutionary shift in designs.
Among the ideas being considered are engines that are embedded within the wings and contra-rotating propellers.
Alan Newby, chief engineer for advanced projects at Rolls-Royce, said: "Ultimately, if we're going to make these radical changes then the aircraft will have to starting looking different.

Science-Environment from BBC News, by Science Editor, David Shukman

Advanced technology

The engine will deliver…
  • module weight savings of 15 per cent and aerodynamic efficiency improvements via the use of compressor blisk technology
  • an optimised internal air system which reduces core air demand and reduces fuel burn
  • higher operating temperatures improve fuel burn. Latest generation material technologies so improvement achieved without degrading reliability
  • a combustor with proven reliability and that is cleaner than all current and future emissions targets
  • world-beating levels of performance and noise with reduced operational cost thanks to the latest fan system technologies
  • the highest efficiency turbine system of any Trent engine, which includes a second stage of IP turbine for improved efficiency and greater capability
  • new bearing system, using larger bearings with increased load capability bringing fuel burn benefits
  • most advanced engine health monitoring system for minimised operational disruption
The Trent XWB will be created by using advanced manufacturing techniques to develop a lighter, more capable and efficient engine to meet tomorrow’s operational needs.

Smart design

Intelligent innovation means…
  • maximised revenue earning potential for operators
  • life-cycle cost focus has been at the heart of all design ensuring the best for engine and aircraft performance
  • proven design with 65 million hours of Trent experience by the time the aircraft enters service in 2014

Rolls-Royce Civil Aviation Large Aircraft, The RR-Trent XWB

EngineStatic Thrust (lbf)Basic Engine Weight (lb)Thrust to Weight RatioLength (in)Fan Diameter (in)Entry Into ServiceApplications

Trent XWB-7575,000/79,000???1182014Airbus A350-800 XWB
Trent XWB-8484,000???1182013Airbus A350-900 XWB
Trent XWB-9797,000???1182015Airbus A350-1000 XWB

Monday, 24 June 2013

Innovation, Innovations! Innovations win the 82th, 24hrs Le Mans motor race, Audi again, Toyota on the podium.

This title "cry" is however marred was marred by the death of Aston Martin pilot Allan Simonsen and bad weather that caused several minor accidents.


Nevertheless Innovation is still the big, big winner of this 82th edition of the iconic Le Mans' race. And it's an Audi hybrid that does it once again following on from last years success. 

The Audi R18 e-tron quattro N° 2 took first place in this year's edition of this years (2013) endurance race, marking the car's second consecutive victory and Audi's twelfth overall win.  

The three man winning team was Loïc Duval, (France) Allan McNish (Scotland) and last but not least Tom Kristensen, nine times winner of Le Mans six of which were consecutive (Denmark), Audi's diesel-electric hybrid race car finished the race a full lap ahead of the runner up, a Toyota TS0030 driven by Nicolas Lapierre, Kazuki Nakajima and Alexander Wurz.  The R18 e-tron logged 348 laps of the Circuit de la Sarthe, which equates to roughly 3,000 miles.


The carbon fiber-bodied R18 e-tron packs a technologically-advanced diesel-electric hybrid drive-train that uses an electric flywheel accumulator to store the kinetic energy that is generated when the brakes are applied.  Active only above 75 mph, the system sends power to two electric motors that spin the front wheels and give the car a noticeable acceleration boost.

The rear wheels are driven by a 3.7-liter V6 TDI turbodiesel and are not linked to the hybrid setup.   Mated to a six-speed electronically-operated sequential gearbox, the oil-burner produces over 626 lb-ft. of torque and about 500 horsepower.


Audi credits the hybrid setup for enabling the R18 to beat Toyota and come out on top.

“We owe the twelfth victory of our brand at Le Mans to the consistent, innovative spirit of our engineers, the unconditional commitment of the entire team and the skills and strong nerves of our drivers. On behalf of Audi, I extend my sincere congratulations on this success to all of them,” said Audi Chairman Rupert Stadler.

Read more

TOYOTA Racing achieved an emotional runners-up finish in the Le Mans 24 Hours after a rollercoaster race which saw drivers and team overcome immense challenges.
The N° 8 TS030 HYBRID of Anthony Davidson (UK), Sébastien Buemi (Switzerland) and Stéphane Sarrazin(France) finished second while the N° 7 of Alex Wurz, Nicolas Lapierre and Kazuki Nakajima completed a satisfying week for the team by taking fourth.




The future of AudiBegins on the track at Le Mans one learns from Audi motosport website

Audi is consistently pushing the envelope when it comes to design and performance. Last year, Audi was the first team to win using hybrid technology. Before that? The first team to win using TDI® clean diesel technology—for six consecutive years. This year, Audi is out to do it again. Winning is in our heritage. And the R18 e-tron® quattro® is poised to make history again.


A legacy of successWinning on the racetrack and on the road.

Audi burst onto the scene in the 1980s with the now legendary quattro® all-wheel drive—dominating the World Rally Championship. Starting in 2001, win after consecutive win was ushered in at Le Mans with the help of TFSI® engine technology. The victories continued with the revolutionary development of TDI® clean diesel engine technology—unleashing more power and increasing fuel efficiency. All of these pioneering innovations ultimately made their way into production models, utilizing racetrack performance on the open road. And that’s the real win.



Michelin’s endurance racing tyres stand out from those of its rivals thanks to their balanced ‘Michelin Total Performance’ package which offers longer life and better grip combined with consistency and safety.
That is why Michelin supplies more than 60 percent of the grid for the Le Mans 24 Hours.
Prior to the creation of the FIA World Endurance Championship (WEC) in 2012, the development of tyres for the discipline was chiefly geared to the Le Mans 24 Hours, where the longevity and consistency of Michelin’s solutions allowed the firm’s partners to multi-stint in total safety with no drop-off in performance. Multi-stinting meant less time spent in the pits to have fresh rubber fitted.
Today’s development work covers tyres for both Le Mans and the WEC, although there are not two distinct ranges. On the contrary, the objective for Michelin Motorsport’s engineers and developers and their colleagues at the Michelin Technology Centre has been to produce a selection of versatile products which are competitive at all the circuits visited during the season, as well as for the different race formats. The tyres developed by Michelin for its partners in the WEC are not available for general sale.

High Purity Cr sources for Superalloys

Energy for th Future:Phil.Trans.A-Vol. 365, N° 1853 / April 15, 2007, curtesy The Royal Soc. London

Engineered foams and porous materials: Phil Trans A. Vol 364, N° 1838 / 06 curtesy_The R Soc. Lond