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Monday, 9 March 2009

Solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security reviewed _Parametres used to classify and rank_Follows previous post

Worldwide available energy, technical potential energy, current installed power, capacity factor of currently-installed power, and current electrical generation of the electric power sources considered cf table.


Its about energy and it's use. A multi-variable study by Mark Z. Jacobson in his “Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security"

Twelve combinations of energy sources and vehicle type considered.

To place electricity and liquid fuel options on an equal footing, twelve combinations of energy sources and vehicle type were considered. The overall rankings of the combinations (from highest to lowest) were:

(1) wind-powered battery-electric vehicles (BEVs), (2) wind-powered hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, (3) concentrated-solar-powered-BEVs, (4) geothermal-powered-BEVs, (5) tidal-powered-BEVs, (6) solar-photovoltaic-powered-BEVs, (7) wave-powered-BEVs, (8) hydroelectric-powered-BEVs, (9-tie) nuclear-powered-BEVs, (9-tie) coal-with-carbon-capture-powered-BEVs, (11) corn-E85 vehicles, and (12) cellulosic-E85 vehicles.

The resultats are shown in the attractive graph opposite

Four Clear divisions of ranking, or tiers, emerge.

Tier 1 (highest-ranked) includes wind-BEVs and wind-HFCVs.
Tier 2 includes CSP-BEVs, geothermal-BEVs, PV-BEVs, tidal-BEVs, and wave-BEVs.
Tier 3 includes hydro-BEVs, nuclear-BEVs, and CCS-BEVs.
Tier 4 includes corn- and cellulosic-E85.

Nine electric power sources:

1. solar-photovoltaics (PV),
2. concentrated solar power (CSP),
3. wind,
4. geothermal,
5. hydroelectric,
6. wave,
7. tidal,
8. nuclear, and
9. coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology.

Two Liquid Fuel Options.
1. corn-ethanol (E85) and cellulosic-E85.

Eight possible impacts of proposed energy-related solutions to global warming, air pollution mortality, and energy security considered which may impact on:
1.water supply,
2. land use,
3. wildlife,
4. resource availability,
5. thermal pollution,
6. water chemical pollution,
7. nuclear proliferation, and
8. undernutrition.

LCA_Life Cycle Analysis E

Effects on climate-relevant emissions
The CO2-equivalent (CO2e) emissions [emissions of CO2 plus those of other greenhouse gases multiplied by their global warming potentials] of each energy technology (11 types enumetated above) are reviewed. Jacobson also examines CO2e emissions of each technology due to planning and construction delays relative to those from the technology with the least delays ( opportunity-cost emissions ), leakage from geological formations of CO2 sequestered by coal-CCS, and the emissions from the burning of cities resulting from nuclear weapons explosions potentially resulting from nuclear energy expansion.

Source and Acknowledgement:

Energy Environ. Sci., 2009, 2, 148-173, DOI: 10.1039/b809990c – Reproduced by permission of the Royal Society of Chemistry

High Purity Cr sources for Superalloys

Energy for th Future:Phil.Trans.A-Vol. 365, N° 1853 / April 15, 2007, curtesy The Royal Soc. London

Engineered foams and porous materials: Phil Trans A. Vol 364, N° 1838 / 06 curtesy_The R Soc. Lond