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Wednesday, 29 December 2010

Materials and Environment - New book entry and link for extensive online reviewing.

Well worth a mention:
Materials Engineering Science Processing and Design by Ashby,Shercliff & Cebon, renowned specialists in the field of Materials Selection and Environment, may be extensively reviewed with a view to acquisition at the link provided (scribd) I have added the link in my side bar entitled Materials and Environment.

For readers of this post a convenient link is Materials Engineering Science Processing and Design

Alternative links for extensive reviewing from  Google Books

Amazon                                                                                                                                                         
 

Materials Science and Technology -Edited by Maney Press, Leeds,UK for IOM3

Materials Science and Technology Up-date:
This highly reputable peer reviewed journal is published monthly.


The journal covers fundamental and technological aspects of the properties, characterisation, modelling, processing, and fabrication of engineering materials, with a particular interest in microstructure–property–processing relationships. Now the full archives from its first issue on January 1985 to date are available online.  At present all papers from 1st of January 1990 are freely available to members of The Institute of Materials Minerals and Mining: Logo below:
 
Meet the author via his seminal paper in Materials Science and Technology:
Optimizing deoxidation and desulphurization during vacuum induction melting of alloy 718

pp. 167-170(4)  Author: Alexander, J.

This paper marked an important step in improved quality and cost of premium quality, superalloys for aeroengine hot parts. It was a first in qualifying recycled alloy for use in aeroengine for civil aircraft use. (in 1985 a military aeroengine was required to withstand 5000hrs in service, whereas aero engines in civilian -passenger aircraft were required to withstand 50 000hrs in service, a factor of 10, a full order of magnitude.

Should manufacturers, would be manufacturers or users require further information please do not hesitate to contact the author.

Other member benefits:
Members have full access to all papers, in over 20 peer reviewed journals, from 1990 on, either to peruse online or to download. Discover all the Institute supported Journals
 
There are of course also many added benefits for members indispensable for progressing within the profession: Chartered Professional Engineer, CEng, Eur Eng, Fellowships,Conferences, Meetings, specialised Careers Advice and Job Adverts and more. Please visit IOM3   
 
Many Fellows are also Fellows of the Royal Society (FRS) and Fellows of Engineering (FEng)
 
Should you as a reader decide to become a member please let me know.
 
Thanks in advance and enjoy becoming involved in a profession so fundamental to any modern economy,  
 
Books by members




Friday, 29 October 2010

Innovation Towards Sustainable Materials-Just what the Doctor ordered: meet the People, the Global Movers.

Big names, concerned scietists, engineers and business executives meet to work on what many consider to be millenium class issues- To Be Treated Fittingly on WWI & II rememberance, Amnesty Day 11-11 1945.   


Big meeting - constructive thinking for serious future planning  anticipated and expected from such a panel of experienced, highly professional specialist in their respective fields.


In all 10 sub-themes will be treated in this expert's approach to Sustainable Materials, Innovation.


1:Setting the Global Scene are: Start 10 Nov. 2010.

• Ian Christmas (Director General, World Steel Association)

• Per Sandberg (Director, International Projects, WBCSD)

• Peter Bonfield (Chief Executive, Building Research Establishment)


2:Materials Sourcing, Processing Technologies, Extractive Industries


• John Groom (Safety and Sustainable Development Adviser, Anglo American)

• Craig White (Wood Technology, White Design)

• Sevket Durucan (Professor of Mining and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College)

• James Anderson (Director of Sustainability, AMEC)

3:Construction and the Built Environment contributions from:

• Hank Dittmar (Chief Executive, Prince's Foundation, Built Environment)

• Beulah Keane (Project Manager, Marks and Spencer, Plan A; Sustainable Construction

• Jamie Smith (Skanska)

• Javed Sethi (Marketing Manager, Lafarge Cement UK)

4:ResourcEfficiency and Environmental Technologies


• Carolyn Roberts (Director, Environmental Sustainability KTN)

• Richard Swannell (Director, WRAP)

• Theo Lehner (Manager, Business Development, Bolidien)

• Edward Way (Chairman, Green Power Limited

5:Assessment Tools and Information Management

• Mike Ashby (Director, Granta Design)

• Rana Pant (European Platform on Life Cycle Assessment, European Commission)

• Norman Swindells (Managing Director, Ferroday Ltd)

• Angela Druckman (Senior Lecturer in Sustainable Energy and Climate Change Mitigation,

Surrey University)

Guest Speaker: Tom Heap (Presenter, Costing the Earth, BBC Radio 4

Thursday 11th of  November

6: Setting the Forward Strategy

• Head of Climate Change, Tata Group
7: Product Design, Packaging and the Consumer

• Martin Charter (Director, Centre for Sustainable Design)

• Tony Taylor (Sustainability and Packaging Manager, Unilever UK)

• Stuart Patrick (Chairman, The Polymer Society, The Institute of Materials, Minerals

and Mining)

8: Transport and Infrastructure.

• Robin Haycock (Transport Energy Consultant, Arup)

• George Coates (Project Director, WorldAutoSteel)

• Geoff Scamans (Chief Scientific Officer, Innoval Limited)

• Pat Winfield (Senior Research Fellow and Deputy Head of Sustainable Vehicle

Engineering Centre, Oxford Brookes University)

9: Energy and Climate Change.

• Rosemary Albinson (Technology and Transport Strategy Advisor, BP Castrol)

• Markys Cain (Knowledge Leader, Functional Materials Team, NPL)

• Rod Martin (Chairman, British Composites Society, IOM3 and Chief Execuitve, MERL)

10: Sustainable Manufacturing and Processes

• Mike Gregory, CBE (Head of Manufacturing and Management Division, Institute for

Manufacturing, University of Cambridge)

• Pascal Payet-Gaspard (Secretary General, International Stainless Steel Forum

Closing Address

• Roland Clift, CBE (Distinguished Professor of Environmental Technology, Surrey

University)

 
More information...? 
cf.  Institute of  Materials Minerals and Mining, IOM3, the global network for the full materials cycle

Tuesday, 26 October 2010

People working in the field of High Temperature Wear and Erosion - Meeting in Derby famous Engineering City Home of Rolls Royce Aero Engines


High Temperature Wear and Erosion
The People, The Subjects Covered, The Places where things happen 10 November 2010, Riverside Centre, Derby
Register Now


The programme features presentations on:

  • Introduction to high temperature materials, with particular reference to their microstructure
    Professor Sarah Hainsworth, University of Leicester

  • Multilayer coatings for erosion protection: Design, modelling and erosion testing
    Dr Richard Wellman, Cranfield University

  • CFD modelling of particle erosion in high temperature corrosive environments
    Professor Margaret Stack, University of Strathclyde

  • High temperature tribological testing
    Dr Mark Gee, NPL

  • Challenges in the quantification of high temperature erosive wear
    S. Graça, M. Hadad, P. Hoffmann, H. Du, EMPA and Alstom Power Ltd

  • High temperature wear and friction performance in a steam environment for power generation sealing applications
    Dr Louise Brown, NPL

  • Recent approaches to developing and understanding nano-structured coatings which might have a future in high temperature wear and erosionapplications
    Professor Allan Matthews, University of Sheffield

  • The design of present and future surface coatings to resist erosion and wear in aero turbines
    Dr David S Rickerby, Rolls-Royce, Derby
The fee to attend the conference is just £98.00 plus VAT for IOM3 Members (or £134.00 plus VAT for non-members).


More Information
Melanie Boyce
Conference Manager
The Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining

1 Carlton House Terrace, London SW1Y 5DB, UK


More information contact  Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining (IOM3)

Thursday, 14 October 2010

Beyond the price of copper and gold. Trapped Chilian Cu and Au miners safe in spectacular rescue

This good news follows a spate of tragic outcomes for the World's mining communities, from China through Central and Eastern Europe.(The Chile Cu and Au mine collapsed on 5th Aug 2010.)

So after the euphoria,of this resounding success by Chile and the International Community this remains a dire warning to the World's mining community of the continuing effort necessary to ensure proper, civilised -mane safety regulations and measures in practice.

1st Encouraging News
August 23, 2010 · Posted in News
"Deep copper and Gold mine Accident, 33 Miners Survive after 17 days Trapped in." (cf Ref below)

"Copiapo, Chile – When 33 men found alive after 17 days trapped in a deep copper and gold mine, the biggest challenge now, the preservation of their mental health in the months can take to cut a tunnel large enough for them to get out .
Chileans were euphoric Sunday after a small drill bit broke through 2257 feet (688 meters) of solid rock in an emergency refuge where the miners had gathered to reach. The men are soon connected two notes at the end of a probe that rescuers pulled to the surface, announcing in large red letters: “All 33 of us are fine in the asylum.”
“Today all of Chile is crying with excitement and joy,” said Sebastian Pinera President in the mine.

Mine officials and relatives of the workers had hoped that the men reached a shelter under the place where the tunnel collapsed August 5 at the San Jose gold and copper mine about 530 miles (850 kilometers) north of the capital Santiago. But she said the reception in case of emergency air and food supplies would last only 48 hours.

The miners seemed to understand that their salvation may be slow, according to one of them, Mario Gomez, perhaps the oldest of the 63 trapped men, who wrote a letter to his wife.


Gomez said that the miners used for light vehicles and an excavator to dig a channel for water to get underground.

It was unclear whether the air threatened to walk.

Rescuers had drilled repeatedly in an attempt to reach the shelter, but failed seven times. They blamed the errors on the maps of the mining company. According to a note from Gomez, at least some of the earlier probes were close enough that the trapped miners heard them. The eighth attempt finally succeeded.

Gomez noted that the President read aloud on live television, focusing on expressions of faith and love for his family. But through frustration showed in a line, where he declared that “this company has to modernize.”
Chile is the world’s top copper producer and a leading producer of gold, and has some of the most advanced in the world mining. But both the company that the mine, San Esteban and the National Mining and Geology Service held criticized for allegedly not complying with regulations. In 2007, an explosion at the San Jose mine killed three workers."
REFERENCE 1.

Excellent News
Chile Mine Rescue, 32 of 33 miners were above ground after trapped deep underground for 69 days
October 14, 2010 · Posted in News · Comment


SAN JOSE MINE, Chile miners who were trapped deep underground for 69 days were drawn to the rescue for a Wednesday in a process that was faster than expected and people around the world was transfixed.
The miners rose to the surface in a red, white and blue rescue capsule called “The Phoenix”. By Wednesday noon, 32 of the 33 miners were above ground. As they came to the Chilean newspaper websites of keeping a running score, almost like a sporting event. “Things have gone extraordinarily well so far.

REFERENCE 2

We now know all have been rescued. The spectacular rescue has been the Global Event of The Week, for it's length, it's difficulty, and the courage of the miners, for the attitude of all invoved.

#comment-form#comment-form

#comment-form#comment-form

& A cheaky Bioplastic link
Bioplastic link

Thursday, 30 September 2010

Protect your laptop - Foresight beats Hindsight

Theft
My Packard Bell Easy Note 17" PC;Serial N° LXB550X0019201B89A 1601 with all website passwords was stolen Monday 27 Sept 2010 from the car I was driving while parked in Rueil-Malmaison (Paris area) lots of change to be managed. Readers take care-Either no valuables in your car or keep it in your own view (best) Spy Cameras in public car parks ?

Once bitten (badly) doubly twice (quadruply) shy - and with your help getting slyer.

Advanced, precautionary protection tips that I have learned of since:
1. Open source tracing lost or stolen lap-tops is due to Adeona

2. A french source unfortunately Packard Bell do not figure in their list.

At the moment I have been totally unable to contact Packard Bell for their advice on Lap-top tracking...

As though fate played a foul joke on me: The Town Mayor of Rueil-Malmaison the "bien-nommé" is M. Patrick Ollier who is the husband of current French Minister for Defense Mme Michèle Alliot-Marie. Pity there were not any military around at the time.

I would gladly share this "poor" joke with the local and national Top-Management.

It appears that their are many cases of Lap-top theft - lets lend a hand to putting a stop to such practice & practise.
Your comments, hints, suggestions more than welcome.

Cheers and good luck all,

Friday, 24 September 2010

ArXiv -Materials Science Link Added to My permanent List of Material Science Websites

ArXiv -Materials Science Link Added to My permanent List of Material Science  Websites. Please visit the this most valuable resource for fundamental science papers. AND... free to download.

Friday, 17 September 2010

Conversations-on-Innovations: Innovation-at-Work: Companies who help accelerate innovation and of course social progress and economic growth

Conversations-on-Innovations: Innovation-at-Work: Companies who help accelerate innovation and of course social progress and economic growth

I discovered the innovation focused company, Innovia Technology, Cambridge UK, thanks to the Google AdSense on my Materials Science & Engineering focused pages Materials Science and Engineering Defined.
Innova Technologies "Capabilities and Approach" page sums up succinct important messages for innovators and their clients:

I discovered the innovation focused company, Innovia Technology, Cambridge UK, thanks to the Google AdSense on my Materials Science & Engineering focused pages Materials Science and Engineering Defined.


Innova Technologies "Capabilities and Approach" page sums up succinct important messages for innovators and their clients:

EXAMPLES OF BOOKS & JOURNALS ON INNOVATION IN MATERIALS SCIENCE

Innovation in Zeolite Materials Science (Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis)


Innovation in Zeolite Materials Science (Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis)

Wednesday, 15 September 2010

HOT TOPIC: The Use of Computer Aided Metallurgy, The People, The Subjects, The Organisations,The Place, The Practice.

OPTIMoM: Optimising Performancee Through Integrated Modelling of Microstructure

STARTS: Sunday 26 September 2010, Cambridge, UK. Recording for WWW interested professionals who are unable to attend but would like further information and research themes upon which it is worth scouring the web. 

Use of Computer Aided Metallurgy in co-development of aircraft structure and materials
S van der Veen (from Airbus, (France)

ICME (Integrated Computational Microstructural engineering) - Are we there yet?
D Furrer (Rolls-Royce Corporation, USA)

Modelling and Simulation of Materials in UK Power Generation
K Jackson (NAMTEC, UK)

Monday 27 September 2010, Session 1
Physics Based Principles and Models for Developing Optimised Microstructures
M Finnis (Imperial College London)

Thermodynamic and Kinetic Simulation of Microstructure Evolution
I Steinbach (Ruhr-University Bochum ICAMS)

Mesoscale and Atomistic Modeling and Simulation of Grain Growth on the Nanoscale
RD Kamachali (Ruhr-University Bochum ICAMS)

Computational Crystal Plasticity
D Raabe (Max-Planck Fur Eisenforschung)

Development and Application of the Kampann and Wagner Numerical Model to Predict Precipitate Evolution in Complex Industrial Alloys
J Robson (University of Manchester)

Quantitative Phase-Field Modelling of Coupled Thermo-Solutal Growth at High Lewis Number
A.M. Mullis (University of Leeds?)


Session 2
Progress and Challenges in the Prediction of Relevant Microstructural Features During Primary Processing of Titanium Alloys
S Fox (Timet)

Validation of a Multiscale 3D Model of the Vacuum Arc Remelting Process
RM Ward (University of Birmingham)

Ultrasonic Inspectability and Modelling of Microstructure Evolution During Hot Working in a Nickel-base Superalloy.
C Dumont (Aubert et Duval)

Level Set Framework for the Numerical Modelling of Recrystallisation and Zener Pinning
M Bernacki (CEMEF-MINES Paris Tech)

Risk Base Process Design of Titanium Rotor Forgings with High-Risk Low-Frequency Anomalies: a Mult-Body FEM Approach
R Shivpuri (OSU)

Predicting Hot Deformation and Microstructural Evolution in IN718: The Influence of Delta-Phase
M Rist (The Open University)

Modeling of Beta-Alpha Transformation in Complex Titanium Alloys
B Appolaire ONERA

Microstructural Modelling Applied to the Design and Control of the Steel Plate Rolling Process
M Steeper (Siemens VAI Sheffield, UK)

Investigating Recrystallisation in Titanium Alloys using EBSD
B Wynne (Sheffield University)

Tuesday 28 September 2010 Back to top, Session 3

Material-Behavior and Process Models for Aerospace Alloys
L Semiatin(ARFL-Air Force Research Laboratory)

Modelling of Microstructural Evolution in MCrAlX Coated Superalloy Systems
M Karunaratne (Loughborough University)

Modelling the In-service Microstructural Evolution of Ni-based Superalloys for Power Generation
S Gill (University of Leicester)

Flying Cyberalloys: Science-Based Design and Qualification
C Kuehmann (QuesTek Innovations LLC)

Precipitation Modeling of Multi-Component Alloys
W Cao (CompuTherm LLC)

Computational Thermodynamics, Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms: Tools to Design New Superalloys
F Tancret (Université de Nantes)

Predicting Fatigue Failure Using Intrinsic Material Properties and Simulations
R Tryon (Vextec)

Precipitation Kinetics Simulation and Its Application in Creep and Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking Modelling
R G Faulkner, Y Yin (Loughborough University)


Session 4

Integrated Modelling of the Effect of Solidification Microstructures on Final Properties in Aluminium Alloy Automotive Components
P Lee (Imperial College London) Materials Dept. Engineering Faculty

Alloy Design Approaches for Single Crystal Superalloys
R.C. Reed (The University of Birmingham)

The Application of Microstructure and Property Modelling to the Prediction of Forged Component Performance
J Brooks (Strathclyde University,AFRC-Advanced Forming Research Centre) Partners, Members NB Aubert et Duval-Imphy

Extending the concept of thermodynamic TDB files....
P Mason  Thermo-Calc Software Inc

Accelerating Insertion of Materials at GE Aviation
E Huron (GE Aviaton)

Optimising Component Design Through Integrated Computational Materials Engineering
L Christodoulou [pdf] (DARPA-Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)

Product Design Chain Optimisation Ignoring the Effect of the Manufacturing Process
N Gramegna ((Enginsoft SPA)


Online Registration and full details

FURTHER READING
ASM Handbook Volume 22A: Fundamentals of Modeling for Metals Processing

RELATED POSTS:

Multiscale modelling of materials,MMM - Introduction and Explanatory Notes; Refs.,Images, on a Hot Interdisciplinary field
Read more: http://materialsscienceengineeringdefined.blogspot.com/2010/02/multiscale-modelling-of-materials.html#ixzz0zcbWA9Vg
Under Creative Commons License: Attribution Share Alike


Thursday, 9 September 2010

Creativity in Materials Science, Invention, Innovation - Innovation Sells.

This series of posts arise from a pointer from my latest September 2010 Issue of Materials World, Institute of Materials Minerals and Mining (IOM3) house journal, Materials World (MW). Our professional development p.19, reported on (improving) "Connecting research with creativity" the article title. The work is supported by the UK's Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) who first brought together together 15 senior academics in order to get strategic input on what was required to free creativity in research. (cf. ref1.)


Currently I manage 7 interconnected blogs,(cf table above) mostly based on Metallurgy, Materials Science, Technology and Engineering. The numbers reflect the interdisciplinarity of a practician from an interdisciplinary science based education such as Metallurgy, Materials Science, Technology,Engineering though to Science and Engineering based (Technical) Management. From my own experience in industrially oriented R and D, I give Creativity, Invention and Innovation in these interdisciplinary fields.

The first news item from EPSRC on these "getting our act together" is dated

30 July 2010. (ref 2.) relating pretended progress already achieved. Both references 1 and 2 are important starting points for both individual professionals and companies to delve further into these topics foundations of the Added Value Proposition (but I surmise the major companies have a head start in this since the Added Value Proposition is their bread and butter.

A Materials Engineering Creativity and Innovation eBook from the academic world .
Thanks to my blogging activity, and preceding this post my AdSense brought to light the following Materials Engineering Creativity and Innovation eBook from the academic world of materials science, technology and engineering and related which I am sure will inspire the UK materials community (ref 3. from which my illustrations have been taken).

REFERENCES.

1. Connecting research with creativity

2.Creative thinking in research

3. Innovation Cells [pdf] or Getting one's act together.

Monday, 19 July 2010

Will Vanadium take the pressure off Lithium (prices)?

Read more in references below:

Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft_Dipl.-Ing. FH Jens Noack of Fraunhofer-Institut für Chemische Technologie
summarises their work on improved redox flow batteries for electric cars (Research News October

A new type of redox flow battery presents a huge advantage for electric cars. If the rechargeable batteries are low, the discharged electrolyte fluid can simply be exchanged at the gas station for recharged fluid – as easy as refilling the petrol tank.

The principle of redox  and redox flow batteries is not new – two fluid electrolytes containing metal ions flow through porous graphite felt electrodes, separated by a membrane which allows protons to pass through it. During this exchange of charge a current flows over the electrodes, which can be used by a battery powered device.

Until now, however, redox flow batteries have had the disadvantage of storing significantly less energy than lithium-ion batteries. The vehicles would only be able to cover about a quarter of the normal distance – around 25 kilometers


 – which means the driver would have to recharge the batteries four times as often. “We can now increase the mileage four or fivefold, to approximately that of lithium-ion batteries,” Noack enthuses. The researchers have already produced the prototype of a cell. Now they must assemble several cells into a battery and optimize them. This further development is being carried out with colleagues from the University of Applied Sciences, Ostphalia, in Wolfenbüttel and Braunschweig. They are testing electric drives and energy storage units on model vehicles that are only a tenth of the size of normal vehicles.



Thanking also
New Energy and Fuel_online website
NB.
"Keep in mind the redox electrolyte research is just now getting under way and the claim is to meet the lithium ion standards very soon. There is even room for opportunities in research at the anode and cathode. What remains of great interest is the energy per weight and volume numbers that can really enthuse or befuddle the future."

& Comment

"Vanadium liquid electrolyte batteries are well-developed, maybe don’t quite have the energy density for automotive use. Here is a good review article on vanadium batteries: http://www.scribd.com/doc/20283743/Status-of-the-Vanadium-Redox-Battery-Development-Program"


en référence à : Improved redox flow batteries for electric cars - Research News 10-2009-Topic 7 – Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft (afficher sur Google Sidewiki)

Friday, 16 July 2010

Back to square one..; sorry recalibration of ZERO TIME_Time Metrology

An alternative title must be that cry of relief from the publican or barman "TIME's UP, Gentlemen please..."

Nothing like a bit of fundamental physics to keep our wits sharp.

TIME MEASUREMENT-UP DATE from Science

Perspectives
Physics:
When Does Photoemission Begin?
H. W. van der Hart

The process of photoemission was one of the effects that led to the formulation of quantum mechanics. If an atom or surface absorbs sufficient energy from incoming light, it can transfer that energy to an electron, which is then emitted. Theories of photoemission mainly focus on energetics—the temporal or dynamic aspects are ignored—but complex electron interactions occur that will create a slight delay between light absorption and electron emission. This time delay has been poorly understood for a fundamental reason: We cannot "see" an atom absorbing a photon. At best, we can follow subsequent emission events and use them to establish a "time zero" when the light was absorbed. A practical challenge has been that the time delay is extremely short, and only recently have direct experiments been feasible with the advent of lasers that emit pulses on the attosecond (as, 10–18 s) time scale. On page 1658 of this issue (1), Schultze and co-workers present measurements of time delays between different photoemission processes generated by the same ultrashort light pulse. This finding not only allows further studies of the timing of photoemission but also provides a new way to investigate electron interactions in atoms.

Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, UK.



Delay in Photoemission
M. Schultze,1,2,* M. Fieß,2 N. Karpowicz,2 J. Gagnon,1,2 M. Korbman,2 M. Hofstetter,1 S. Neppl,3 A. L. Cavalieri,2 Y. Komninos,4 Th. Mercouris,4 C. A. Nicolaides,4 R. Pazourek,5 S. Nagele,5 J. Feist,5,6 J. Burgdörfer,5 A. M. Azzeer,7 R. Ernstorfer,3 R. Kienberger,2,3 U. Kleineberg,2 E. Goulielmakis,2 F. Krausz,1,2 V. S. Yakovlev1,2,*

Photoemission from atoms is assumed to occur instantly in response to incident radiation and provides the basis for setting the zero of time in clocking atomic-scale electron motion. We used attosecond metrology to reveal a delay of Formula attoseconds in the emission of electrons liberated from the 2p orbitals of neon atoms with respect to those released from the 2s orbital by the same 100–electron volt light pulse. Small differences in the timing of photoemission from different quantum states provide a probe for modeling many-electron dynamics. Theoretical models refined with the help of attosecond timing metrology may provide insight into electron correlations and allow the setting of the zero of time in atomic-scale chronoscopy with a precision of a few attoseconds.

1 Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
2 Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Straße 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
3 Physik Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
4 Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635, Greece.
5 Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10, 1040 Vienna, Austria.
6 Institute for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (ITAMP), Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
7 Physics and Astronomy Department, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

More time...
More time...

Friday, 9 July 2010

The Cost of Cartilage Health: maintenance better than surgical repair?

Glucosamine and chondroitin are widely taken to help relieve knee pain from osteoarthritis but do they work?

The GAIT Study:

     Double blind
The study, like most good medical studies, was done ‘double blind’, that is neither the patients nor the people administering to them knew which treatment the patient was on.

     MORE cf link below
But when results of the group of patients with moderate to severe pain was analysed the investigators found that the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin sulphate WAS significantly effective for pain relief!
ie. a healthy dynamic life style may be pursued?
(This is true in my case - Add my experience to the study -Chondrosulf alone 400mg x 3 per day.)
The GUIDE finding Both glucosamine sulphate and acetaminophen were more effective in reducing pain than placebo. Patients taking glucosamine sulphate exhibited more relief than patients on acetaminophen.

It was concluded that once-daily 1500 mg oral doses of glucosamine sulphate may be the preferred treatment for knee osteoarthritis.

Note
It must be noted that unlike the GAIT study that was publicly funded the GUIDE study was sponsored by the manufacturers of the glucosamine compound that was used in the trial.


In both the GAIT and GUIDE studies 1500mg of glucosamine daily was used and in the GAIT study 1200mg of chondroitin daily was used. However, some manufacturers suggest that glucosamine and chondroitin sulphate supplements should be taken in two phases, for example -

* A loading phase of a month of increased levels of glucosamine (up to 2250mg) and 1200mg of chondroitin sulphate.

* A maintenance phase of 1500mg of glucosamine and 800mg of chondroitin sulphate.

Other suggestions are that glucosamine and chondroitin sulphate doses should be calculated based on a person’s body weight. One recommendation is 20mg of glucosamine for every 1kg of body weight, whilst another suggestion is as follows:

* If body weight is less than 54.5kg take 1,000mg glucosamine and 800mg chondroitin sulphate.
*
* If body weight is between 54.5 and 91kg take 1,500mg glucosamine and 1,200 mg chondroitin sulphate.
*
* If body weight is more than 91kg take 2,000mg glucosamine and 1,600mg chondroitin sulphate.
(sounds reasonably logical start point from a materials engineering stand point) Are these ploys by supplement companies to sell more of their product or is there a scientific basis for these recommendations? Well, at present the evidence for doses and schedules is fairly sparse and that is one of the reasons why daily doses of 1500mg of glucosamine and 1200mg of chondroitin sulphate are common recommendations.

What about the source of these products-QC-AC-TQM?

Chondroitin sulphate is usually produced from cow (bovine) cartilage but can be produced from pig (porcine), chicken and even shark cartilage. Glucosamine on the other hand is derived from shellfish, usually shrimp, lobster or crab shells.


An important and informative discussion followed cf link
en référence à :
"Other factors   Chondroitin sulphate production in the body can be hindered if there is a deficiency of some key vitamins and minerals, in particular manganese, vitamin C and vitamin A. As participants in the GAIT study didn’t appear to undergo a dietary analysis prior to the start of the trial it is possible that some individuals may have had deficiencies in these key substances."
- Cartilage Health - Glucosamine and Chondroitin Supplement (afficher sur Google Sidewiki)

COMMENT:

Although I have no information on the cost of "wide-spread full life-cycle cost of surgery, It would appear obvious to an industrial R&D person such as I that the low risk relatively easy to extend chemical route is the road to take and ought to be introduced before serious pain results. In my case knee pain was reaching the handicapping stage whereby X-Rat readily detected near absence of cartilage on one side of th knee joint. The chemical supplement has been working well for several years and I am sorry not to have discovered in a simple X-Ray check-up! Not only has knee pain practically totally disappeared improvement in back-pain and disc slip has also greatly improved by my Chondroitin suppliment intake

Materials Views_2010-05-28 reports superior hyper-duplex corrosion resistant stainless steel

Materials Views_2010-05-28 reports superior hyper-duplex corrosion resistance. "The Influence of microstructure on the corrosion resistance of a newly developed hyperduplex stainless steel has been studied by a team of Brazilian  Metallurgists; S. S. M. Tavares, J. M. Pardal, A. Loureiro , E. Ponzio,  J. A. de Souza from the Universidade Federal Fluminense -  (Brazil)"

"Hyperduplex UNS S32707 is a newly developed austenitic-ferritic (dual phase or duplex) stainless steel. The steel contains about 27%Cr, 7%Ni, 4.5%Mo, and 0.4%N, which results in a pitting resistance equivalent factor (PRE) equal to 49. In this study, the pitting corrosion resistance of this new grade of stainless steel was investigated by varying the microstructure using different thermal processes. The critical pitting temperature measurement and cyclic polarization tests confirm the high corrosion resistance of the hyperduplex steel in the solution treated condition. However, deleterious phases form easily during thermal processing and cause a drastic decrease in the corrosion resistance.

Jounal, Authors and ABSTRACT

Materials Views Summary

Materials Views' Martin Grolms gives the reader some some of the essentials:eg.
For ranking the pitting resistance equivalent (PRE) number is used. PRE is based on the chemical composition of the steel and can be calculated as following:

PRE=%Cr+3.3(%Mo+%W)+16(%N)).

Increasing some of the parameters, like in this case, the amounts of Cr and N, leads to the development of stainless steel with ultrahigh corrosion resistance - hyperduplex steel. It contains about 27%Cr, 7%Ni, 4.5%Mo, and 0.4%N, so that PRE is equal to 49.

Pitting potential at a fixed temperature and critical pitting temperature (CPT) both increase with the PRE value. For hyperduplex steel CPT values above 90 have been reported. However, precipitation of tertiary phases such as sigma (δ), chi (χ), and Cr2N often decreases the CPT.

At the Brazilian Fluminense Federal University (UFF) investigations were conducted to get a deeper insight into the microstructure and corrosion properties of the new hyperduplex stainless steel.

Experimental:
A tube of steel, with a diameter of 12.5 mm and thickness of 2 mm, was purchased under the solution treated condition. Small pieces of this tube were cut for the study.

One of the specimens represented the original hyperduplex tube, while the other ones were produced by six different thermal procedures.

Results-Microstructure:
Afterwards some specimens had unequal austenite/ferrite proportions, and other were δ-phase precipitated.

The experimental procedure and results are further summarised in Materials views

Findings:
The corrosion resistance of hyperduplex stainless steel is higher than the other austenitic–ferritic steels, since a CPT higher than 92°C was obtained. The Critical PRE values are approx. 45–55ºC for solution treated duplex steels and 80–90ºC for superduplex steels.

Applications:
“The first application of hyperduplex stainless steels seems to be as heat exchange tubes used in the petroleum platforms in Brazil”, says Sérgio S.M. Tavares from UFF. “The material has mechanical and corrosion resistance superior to superduplex steels, which makes it very attractive in the off-shore equipments. High Cr and Mo content makes it more susceptible to embrittlement phenomena associated to intermetallic precipitation. The challenge lies in the development of reliable welding procedures for the hyperduplex steel”.

“The first application of hyperduplex stainless steels seems to be as heat exchange tubes used in the petroleum platforms in Brazil”, says Sérgio S.M. Tavares from UFF. “The material has mechanical and corrosion resistance superior to superduplex steels, which makes it very attractive in the off-shore equipments. High Cr and Mo content makes it more susceptible to embrittlement phenomena associated to intermetallic precipitation. The challenge lies in the development of reliable welding procedures for the hyperduplex steel”.

References:
MaterialsViews with enlarged size micro-image.
Wiley Interscience

RELATED POSTS

It's not HSLA-Bainite"Nanostructured Steels"-Green Light by Irvine-based Materials Science Co-MMFX Tech Corp - Corrosion and Toughness Themes

Other References
Duplex Stainless Steels (Conference proceedings / American Society for Metals)Duplex Stainless Steels (Conference proceedings / American Society for Metals)

Friday, 25 June 2010

Advanced Material Coatings for High Strength, High Conductivity Substrates from Innocentive

Advanced Material Coatings for High Strength, High Conductivity Substrate

Challenge Overview

presented by INNOCENTIVE

The Seeker is looking for advanced materials (alloys, metal composites, advanced coatings, surface treatments, etc.) to be used as the contact surface of a high speed rail system. The conductive material must withstand thermal, mechanical and electrical cycling while still retaining surface hardness and strength properties.


This Challenge is an Ideation Challenge, which varies from traditional InnoCentive challenges in the following ways:
  • There is a guaranteed award. The awards will be paid to the best submission(s), which are solely determined by the Seeker. The total payout will be $10,000. The Seeker can payout as one award or split it among the best submissions. One award will be at least $5,000 and no award will be less than $1,000.
  • Your submission will identify and describe a material/process that meets the requirements of the Challenge. You are required to give the Seeker a free, perpetual, and non-exclusive license to use any information submitted for this Challenge.


The Seeker will complete the review process and make a decision after the Challenge deadline. All Solvers that provide a submission will be notified as to the status of their submission; however, there will not be any detailed evaluation of your submission given. 

Thursday, 24 June 2010

Environmental Association of Universities and Colleges-Top Brains look at Sustainability_Some Materials Aspects WRAP'd- UP

John Holland of WRAP-Waste Resources Action Programme looks at materials used in construction. This post also is a convenient way to bring the increasing understanding and accompanying credibility given to sustainability by top thinkers brought together by the Environmental Association of Universities and Colleges, EAUC, in the UK.  EAUC currently has 280 members.



EAUC conferences 2009 and 2010 currently free online constitute a very important contribution to thought and action on sustainability.

MORE

1. cf.  EAUC conf 2009  and  EAUC conf 2010

         Related Posts:

Materials and Environment-Embodied Energy of Materials

New Green Construction Material Innovation_Low energy cement production by Celitement via IOM3: The Global Network for Materials, Minerals & Mining Professionals



3.  Open Search on IOM3's MW-Materials World, journal returned the following first 10 links:

WRAP takes over from Envirowise

06 April 10, IOM3, News article

The maze of mixed plastics recycling

01 July 09, Materials World Magazine, News article

Composites Design and Simulation Challenges for the Future

19 March 08, Composites, Conference proceedings / event reports

Recycling WEEE polymers

01 June 07, Materials World Magazine, News article

Mixed plastics recycling in the UK

14 July 08, Packaging Professional Magazine, News article

Mixed plastics recycling in the UK

01 July 08, Materials World Magazine, News article

Resource mapping of packaging and food waste

09 November 09, IOM3, News article

Useful links

16 March 10, Design Mine

Conversations-on-Innovations: Low energy cement production | IOM3: The Global Network for Materials, Minerals & Mining Professionals

Conversations-on-Innovations: Low energy cement production | IOM3: The Global Network for Materials, Minerals & Mining Professionals

Sunday, 6 June 2010

H2 storage and Fuel-Cells in graphs, tables and images

Almost a year ago in the July 2009 issue of Materials World, John Kilner of Imperial College London, and Peter Edwards and Vladimir Kuznetsov of the University of Oxford, in the UK discussed the issues surrounding the generation of power using H2 and Fuel Cells. The feature clarified many aspects of the different types of fuel-cells, the chemical processes involved, their range of application eg due to temperatre, weight, or volume limitations as well as the typical applications. The following is a visual account of some of the electrochemical and materials issues involved in H2 storage and Fuel-Cell development: graphs, tables and images.










REFERENCES:
1. Cell-ing future power – hydrogen and fuel cells
By Peter Edwards and Vladimir Kuznetsov, MW July 2009.

2. Insight review article, Hydrogen-storage materials
for mobile applications Louis Schlapbach, Andreas Züttel. NATURE
VOL 414 15 NOVEMBER 2001
www.nature.com from 22.Sandrock, G. & Thomas, G. The IEA/DOC/SNL on-line hydride databases. Appl. Phys. A 72,153–155 (2001).
3. GUIDELINES FOR USE OF HYDROGEN  FUEL IN COMMERCIAL VEHICLES , US Dept of Transport  Final Report Nov 2007.

Further reading


http://www.humboldt.edu/~serc/animation.html

http://www.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell.htm

http://www.fuelcells.org/basics/how.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuel_cell 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PEM_fuelcell.svg

Saturday, 5 June 2010

Metallurgy-Materials Science pick of the month by french popular science magazine La Recherche brings SMA-Shape Memory Alloys to the fore

In fact two SMA article summaries are reported in this post

Ferrous Polycrystalline Shape-Memory Alloy Showing Huge Superelasticity by
Y. Tanaka,1 Y. Himuro,1 R. Kainuma,2,* Y. Sutou,1 T. Omori,1 K. Ishida1, published in Science from the American Association for the Advancement of Science AAAS.

Shape-memory alloys, such as Ni-Ti and Cu-Zn-Al, show a large reversible strain of more than several percent due to superelasticity. In particular, the Ni-Ti–based alloy, which exhibits some ductility and excellent superelastic strain, is the only superelastic material available for practical applications at present. We herein describe a ferrous polycrystalline, high-strength, shape-memory alloy exhibiting a superelastic strain of more than 13%, with a tensile strength above 1 gigapascal, which is almost twice the maximum superelastic strain obtained in the Ni-Ti alloys. Furthermore, this ferrous alloy has a very large damping capacity and exhibits a large reversible change in magnetization during loading and unloading. This ferrous shape-memory alloy has great potential as a high-damping and sensor material.

1 Department of Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579, Japan.
2 Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579, Japan.

What Others Say
Physics Today Blog
http://blogs.physicstoday.org/update/2010/03/

Un alliage très élastique et pas cher/ A very elastic inexpensive alloy
http://www.larecherche.fr/content/actualite-matiere/article?id=27546

Science Editor recommends a 2nd paper on SMAs recommends also

Materials Science:
Expanding the Repertoire of Shape Memory Alloys
Ji Ma and Ibrahim Karaman
The exceptional properties of many materials often come at the expense of limited performance in other areas. For example, conventional metals and their alloys are strong—they are good at resisting stress (i.e., an applied load)—but they tolerate only a very small amount of strain (i.e., deformation) before they are irreversibly deformed. Rubber can easily return to its original shape, even after large deformations, but is much weaker than conventional metals. However, some metal alloys exhibit "shape memory"; they are strong but can recover from being deformed when heated. This process seems counter-intuitive, but these alloys take advantage of solid-to-solid "diffusionless" phase transitions: The atoms rearrange how they pack into crystals in an orderly fashion, and this process changes the material's macroscopic shape. Few other materials possess this combination of strength and flexibility (see the figure), and clever engineering has exploited these properties—for example, in implanted medical devices such as stents. On page 1488 of this issue, Tanaka et al. (1) report on a superelastic alloy that almost doubles the useful range of deformation that can be induced in such alloys.

Materials Science and Engineering Interdisciplinary Program and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.
en référence à : Expanding the Repertoire of Shape Memory Alloys -- Ma and Karaman 327 (5972): 1468 -- Science (afficher sur Google Sidewiki)

RELATED POSTS:

Metaklett-steel grips, Biomimicry and Shape Memory Alloy meanders



Footnote: 1 News dates from March 2010 but published in La Recherche's June Issue.
                2. Nitol is used as an example . The current SMA reported above is reportedly better and cheaper. The alloys appear on first sight very much cheaper than the books (2$/22gm) cf details of Nitol product offer on AMAZON below





Footnote: 1 News dates from March 2010 but published in La Recherche's June Issue.
             


















  2. Nitol is used as an example . The current SMA reported above is reportedly better and cheaper. The alloys appear on first sight very much cheaper than the books (2$/22gm) cf details of Nitol product offer on AMAZON below
Nitol Product Features:
ASTM F2063, Straight, Annealed Temper, Super Elastic Alloy, May be Strained 8-10 times More Than Spring Steel, Superior Corrosion Resistance
Product Details cf advert.

Friday, 14 May 2010

UN science chief defends IPCC-UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's work and welcomes review

AMSTERDAM, Friday 14 May – The head of the U.N. scientific body on climate change defended the work of the thousands of scientists who contribute to its reports, even as he welcomed a review of procedures that produced errors undermining the panel's public credibility.

The chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Rajendra Pachauri, cautioned an independent scientific committee reviewing the IPCC's work not to undermine scientists' motivation for contributing to reports on global warming.

Recently its reports have been dismissed (undermined) by climate skeptics who attribute global warming to natural cycles. The skeptics were bolstered by a series of errors in the IPCC's 2007 report.

Pachauri told the committee's first review meeting that the panel's conclusions are valid, even in areas where mistakes were discovered.

Pointing to the most glaring error, a claim that the world's glaciers will melt by 2035, Pachauri said glaciers are indeed melting, though not that fast. Nonetheless, glacial melt accounts for 28 percent of sea level rise, and the panel's assessment on glaciers contains "a lot of facts which we can ignore at our peril."

Pachauri said the panel is comprised of volunteer scientists contributing several years of their own time and who disband after issuing their report. The panel has no mechanism for responding to criticism once the reports are issued, other than the small secretariat.

"We need to develop an ability and a capacity to communicate better with the outside world," he told the 15 top scientists from around the world summoned to sit on the review committee..

He said the panel's procedures already are robust, but he welcomed any suggestion that would improve accuracy.

The review is expected to take several weeks before it issues recommendations on how to tighten the IPCC procedures.

Its up to the individual whom he chooses to believe in these issues.

He can choose between either the largest body of the worlds best and most recognised scientists and experts of all times brought together to study this most important or a relatively small number of specialist sceptics and a large number of lay persons with little or no recognised scientific or engineering training in such vast and complex fields as to the probable outcomes.

I know which group I would choose to place my faith.

Reference
en référence à :
"He said the panel's procedures already are robust, but he welcomed any suggestion that would improve accuracy. The review is expected to take several weeks before it issues recommendations on how to tighten the IPCC procedures."
- UN science chief defends work, welcomes review - Yahoo! News (afficher sur Google Sidewiki)
A few books to choose from:







Wednesday, 5 May 2010

Adrian Bejan - Constructal Theory, Fundamental and Philosophical

In order to look at some of the more fundamental and philosophical aspects in materials science and processing I have modified the Phil Trans A link list to "Fundamental and Philosophical" in order to treat subjects such as Thermodynamics: Entropy,Exergy,open and closed systems and here Adrian Bejan's Constructal theory. Two links may be found on the links list:
1.Adrian Bejan's Constructal Theory website.

2. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - The Constructal Law of Design and Evolution in Nature_PDF

Materials and Environment-Embodied Energy of Materials

I kicked-off this link series Materials and Environment-Embodied Energy, fittingly with reference to the excellent book "Materials and Environment" by MF Ashby, M. F. Ashby, Daniel L. Schodek, Paulo J. S. G. Ferreira to which I added diverse previous blog post references. The list at present has an additional five links for menory:
1. Embodied Energy-Wikipedia-A place to start your search


2. Embodied Energy Materials Coefficients PDF_NZ source

3. Embodied Energy Steel_Australian Source

4. Energy Use & CO2 emissions:Steel Sector-PDF

5. Whole-life costs: Concrete vs steel

Hopefully this list will lengthen with time, rapidly due to the inceasing importance in todays global economy.

RELATED POSTS

Materials and Environment- Mothers of Inventions

Nanoscale,Nanomaterials_Basics_Calculate numbers of surface to volume atoms and much more.

Multiscale modelling of materials,MMM - Introduction and Explanatory Notes; Refs.,Images, on a Hot Interdisciplinary field


BOOKS from AMAZON.


Monday, 19 April 2010

Crystal Growth Detection System sought -Innocentive Challenge_Solver Teamwork encouraged

Crystal Growth Detection System

It was time that I came back to Innocentive (rewarded) Challenges as regularly as I did in the platforms early days. Much has happened there and the platform is attracting increasing attention and sponsors, I am pleased to say.

(Original backers Ely-Lilly, Dupont... Sponsors now include, Rockefeller Foundation , NASA, Nature, The Economist, and SAP, roughly in that order..?
Official history

In particular, the platform supports team work, depending on the challenge. The one that I am bringing to readers attention today is a team work supported challenge, involving a theme which will ring a few bells with metallurgists and physical chemists even if the system(s) is a water based colloids, for which it is required to detect solid crystal growth.

Check this or any of the other open challenges either for individuals or team worker. If I can be of any help on either approaches please do not hesitate to get in touch.

Introductory References:
1. Colloidal_crystals
2.  Nanoparticle Colloids

Innocentive
All open challenges

Books
Google books previews:

Emulsions, foams, and suspensions: fundamentals and applications
 Amazon look inside
Colloidal Dispersions: Suspensions, Emulsions, and Foams 
Both books deal Particle size methods and are well documented.
Amazon











High Purity Cr sources for Superalloys

Energy for th Future:Phil.Trans.A-Vol. 365, N° 1853 / April 15, 2007, curtesy The Royal Soc. London

Engineered foams and porous materials: Phil Trans A. Vol 364, N° 1838 / 06 curtesy_The R Soc. Lond