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Physical sciences : nature.com subject feeds

Materials science : nature.com subject feeds

Wednesday, 28 October 2009

Link When Charles Darwin, FRS,(12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) hesitated to publish: "On the Origins of Species "(1859)

Science and scientists in Victorian and Edwardian literary novels: insights into the emergence of a new profession, Public Understand. Sci. 16 (2007) 205–222 comes as good reminder of, who the authors of the time were, and, of their efforts and those of the literary world to bring Science to the wider Public.

Correction to first post ref sidewiki in footnote refs.

"On the Origin of Species proved unexpectedly popular, with the entire stock of 1,250 copies oversubscribed when it went on sale to booksellers on 22 November 1859.[107] In the book, Darwin set out “one long argument” of detailed observations, inferences and consideration of anticipated objections.[108] His only allusion to human evolution was the understatement that “light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history”.[109] His theory is simply stated in the introduction: refs 107,108, 109 refer to an extensive account in Wikipedia.

As many more individuals of each species are born than can possibly survive; and as, consequently, there is a frequently recurring struggle for existence, it follows that any being, if it vary however slightly in any manner profitable to itself, under the complex and sometimes varying conditions of life, will have a better chance of surviving, and thus be naturally selected. From the strong principle of inheritance, any selected variety will tend to propagate its new and modified form.[110]

Darwin put a strong case for common descent, but avoided the then controversial term “evolution”, and at the end of the book concluded that;

There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved.[111 in wikipedia]



Publication of the theory of natural selection

Link to Original post via Sidewiki

Comment: how from mouth to ear from web error-deformation to web error the facts and perhaps the truth can be deformed, or even manipulated! cf. my sidewiki above, -insufficiently researched, and much confusion over Darwin's story eg. obvious errors in dates also found in the following link, not the best way to defend against censorship!
eg.
National Coalition Against Censorship, NCAC

What all scientists and policy makers must contend with-Science Communication-Public Understanding...of Science

"The public reception of scientific ideas depends largely on two factors: people's ability to grasp factual information and the cultural lens through which that information is filtered. The former is what scientists tend to focus on when they give popular accounts of issues such as climate change. The assumption is that if they explain things very, very clearly, everyone will understand. Unfortunately, this is an uphill battle. The general public's average capacity to weigh facts and numbers is notoriously poor — although there is encouraging evidence that probabilistic reasoning can be improved by targeted education early in life" is Natures Editorial line. It continues

"Even more crucial, however, are the effects of the cultural lens."

The classical case of Darwin is summarized with talent. The negative reaction of the Church in England, is compared to the more positive welcome by much of the "3rd World" at the time, hoping to "improve their lot" embraced the theory, In China, Darwin's ideas were seen as supporting Confucians' belief in the perfectibility of the cosmic order. Latin American and Russian reaction figure in this enlightening Editorial.

"The lesson for today's scientists and policy-makers is simple: they cannot assume that a public presented with 'the facts' will come to the same conclusion as themselves. They must take value systems, cultural backdrops and local knowledge gaps into account and frame their arguments accordingly."
[As yet another international round cop15 is about to start Dec 7-18, 2009]
Nature's Editors warn:
The lesson for today's scientists and policy-makers is simple: they cannot assume that a public presented with 'the facts' will come to the same conclusion as themselves. They must take value systems, cultural backdrops and local knowledge gaps into account and frame their arguments accordingly. Such approaches will be crucial in facing current global challenges, from recessions to pandemics and climate change. These issues will be perceived and dealt with differently by different nations — not because they misunderstand, but because their understanding is in part locally dependent.

The Editorial concludes:
"Darwin once said: "But then with me the horrid doubt always arises whether the convictions of man's mind, which has been developed from the mind of the lower animals, are of any value or at all trustworthy." Researchers and policy-makers would do well to mimic his humility when presenting science, and remember how people's minds truly work."

And what of Shakespeare's quote This above all -to thine own self be true, And it must follow, as the night, the day, Thou cans't not then be false to any man.»?

in reference to: Darwin and culture : Article : Nature (view on Google Sidewiki)

Monday, 26 October 2009

Materials Science, Non Destructive Testing, NDT using Microwaves with PC laptop imagery, News 26Oct 09 from Missouri University of Science and Technology (MST) could help the Medical Practitioner detect cancer or burns

Missouri University of Science and Technology (MST) has developed a handheld camera that uses microwave signals to non-destructively peek inside materials and structures in real time.

The compact system can produce synthetically focused images of objects - at different planes in front of the camera - at speeds of up to 30 images per second. A laptop computer then collects the signal and displays the image in real-time for review. The entire system, powered by a battery similar to the size used in laptops, can run for several hours, rendering it portable.

"In the not-so-distant future, the technology may be customized to address many critical inspection needs, including detecting defects in thermal insulating materials that are found in spacecraft heat insulating foam and tiles, space habitat structures, aircraft radomes and composite-strengthened concrete bridge members," says Dr. Reza Zoughi, the Schlumberger Distinguished Professor of Electrical Engineering at Missouri S&T, who is leading the research effort.

The team believe that their work could help medical professionals detect and monitor a variety of skin conditions in humans, including cancer and burns, security personnel could detect concealed contraband (such as weapons) or again home owners could detect termite damage.

The idea for developing a real-time, portable camera came to Zoughi in 1998 while he was on sabbatical in France. In 2007, Zoughi's research group completed the first prototype and has spent the past two years increasing its size and overall efficiency.

"Unlike X-rays, microwaves are non-ionizing and may cause some heating effect," Zoughi says. "However, the high sensitivity and other characteristics of this camera enables it to operate at a low-power level."

More:
Various new sources included Yahoo Alerts, Indian and Asian press and physorg.com in particular for the video presentation and original new and web sources
PHYSORG

en référence à :

"The idea for developing a real-time, portable camera came to Zoughi in 1998 while he was on sabbatical in France. In 2007, Zoughi's research group completed the first prototype and has spent the past two years increasing its size and overall efficiency.
"Unlike X-rays, microwaves are non-ionizing and may cause some heating effect," Zoughi says. "However, the high sensitivity and other characteristics of this camera enables it to operate at a low-power level.""
- New research brings 'invisible' into view (w/ Video) (afficher sur Google Sidewiki)

High Purity Cr sources for Superalloys

Energy for th Future:Phil.Trans.A-Vol. 365, N° 1853 / April 15, 2007, curtesy The Royal Soc. London

Engineered foams and porous materials: Phil Trans A. Vol 364, N° 1838 / 06 curtesy_The R Soc. Lond